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用布鲁姆思考模型阅读材料,写经济学论文不再是难事

2018-12-21 20:05 来源:中国经济商务网 浏览:

看点对于中国学生来说,国际课程经济学科中最大的难点在于数据分析和论文写作。本文以《经济学人》上的文本为例,谈谈如何按布鲁姆思考模型中的六阶段循序渐进,阅读经济类文章,并写出合乎范式的论文。

文 | 柳柏椿 编辑 | 郑晓晨

对中国学生来说,A-level (AP或者IB)经济学科上最大的难点在于数据分析data response和后面的essay(AP里面是free response,IB经济学科平时会有比较多的project,分析经济学文章之类的)。本文将谈谈如何带着批判性思维去阅读经济类文章。

以A-level经济学为例,考试的重难点是data response(数据分析)和essay(论文),data response往往取材于像《经济学人》(The Economist) 或《金融时报》(The Financial Times)这一类的经济学杂志。

因此我建议大家平时可以多阅读此类的文章,一方面是提高英语阅读能力,另一方面也可以锻炼思维,提高信息处理能力。

教育心理学家Bloom将学生的思考认知能力从低到高依次分为6个阶段:

记忆→理解→应用→分析→评价→创造

每一个阶段都需要在前一个阶段完成的情况下才能依次往上。

从图中,我们不难看出,平时我们记住知识点是属于最低阶的思考能力,往往很难去达到评价和创造的高度,然而这两个能力正是我们学习国际课程所需要的。

那么我们不妨根据Bloom的思考模型来学习一下如何带着批判性思维去阅读,且以《经济学人》上的一篇文章“How ‘New Europe’ has fared on its tenth birthday”为例:

How "New Europe" has fared on its tenth birthday

TEN years ago today, the European Union expanded the most in its history. A community with 15 states became one of 25 (it now has 28 members). The expansion was mainly eastward, absorbing eight countries formerly controlled by or part of the Soviet Union, and unleashing big waves of migration to the west. But the EU also acquired two small Mediterranean states: Cyprus and Malta. How have all ten fared since then?

用布鲁姆思考模型阅读材料,写经济学论文不再是难事

There are four clear winners in the prosperity league. Two Baltic countries, Lithuania and Latvia, together with Poland and Slovakia, have made gains of over 40% in GDP per person. The advances in the Baltic economies (including Estonia’s 30% gain) are particularly notable since all three experienced savage downturns in 2009, after the financial crisis.

There is also one clear loser. Cypriots have actually become less well-off, suffering a 13% decline in living standards since 2004. Slovenia, which also experienced a big banking crisis (though not on the scale of Cyprus's) has also done badly, with GDP per person rising by only 7%.

Among the ten, six have since adopted the euro, most recently Latvia at the start of this year. Those joining the single currency before the financial crisis peaked in late 2008, such as Slovenia in 2007 and Cyprus in 2008, have done worse than those joining after it, such as Estonia in 2011. But Cyprus’s reckless banking expansion dated back to joining the EU rather than the euro. And Hungary, outside the euro, has done almost as badly as Slovenia, within it.

第一阶段:记忆(Remembering)

这一阶段,你要掌握文章的基本信息,比如欧盟是什么,有什么样的变化趋势,文章中出现了哪些经济学概念。这一阶段我们可以通过阅读,标记来完成。

提问关键词:defines,describes,identifies, lists,names,outlines,理清基本信息。

第二阶段:理解(understanding)

这一阶段,理解文章主要想表达的意思,带着以下问题,比如:为什么有些国家是赢家,有些国家不是?为什么有些国家要采用欧元?等等。

提问关键词:explain, paraphrases, summarizes等。

第三阶段:应用(Applying)

通过前面两个阶段的梳理,现在已经可以结合课堂和书本所学的知识点进行融会贯通。比如European Union是我们经济课上提到的哪个概念?可以由此联想到它是Economic integration中的一种。

提问关键词:apply,demonstrates,compute等。

第四阶段:分析(Analyzing)

这一阶段我们可以去逻辑性地推理解释文章中所提到的现象。举个例子,文章提到了波兰和拉脱维亚这几个国家加入欧盟之后人均GDP是上升的,我们不妨用“economic integration最主要的好处trade creation”来进行推理。有些经济学文章你也可以继续采用一些图表分析,更具说服力。

提问关键词:analyzes, diagrams, illustrates等。

第五阶段:评估(Evaluating)

这一阶段你要对文章陈述的观点进行评估,比如,试着提问,应不应该加入欧盟这样的经济整合体?对于那些没有从中获利的国家有什么好的建议?

提问关键词:evaluate, justify, discuss, criticize等。

第六阶段:创造(Creating)

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